Civil War Wednesday: The Plight of the Mill Workers

New Manchester Mill ruins, photo courtesy of author

New Manchester Mill ruins, photo courtesy of author

Hoping to replicate the success of Roswell King, who founded the Roswell Manufacturing Company in the town bearing his name, Colonel James Rogers and former Georgia Governor Charles McDonald built another mill, this one alongside Sweetwater Creek in Campbell County (today’s Douglas County). Roswell King assisted them in the design and construction, and the new mill began operations in 1849. The mill turned out thread, cloth and yarn of fine quality under the direction of Rogers and McDonald. In 1860, Colonel Arnoldus Brumby and William Russell assumed the reasonability of daily operations, as McDonald’s health declined.[1]

Fighting and maneuvering during the Atlanta Campaign eventually brought the threat of Federal forces to the region, and the mill operators, both in Roswell and in Sweetwater, grew increasingly concerned over the safety of their operations. The owner in Roswell took drastic action when he made a Frenchman, Theophile Roché, a part owner. Perhaps they believed a foreign-born operator might claim neutrality and save the mill. When the Federal horse soldiers of Brigadier General Kenner Garrard rode into Roswell on July 6, a French flag flew above the mill. The ruse to convince the invading soldiers of the mill’s neutrality failed, and Northern flames soon blazed. When Major General William T. Sherman learned of the flag incident, he instructed Garrard, “Should you, under the impulse of anger…hang the wrench, I approve the act beforehand.” In the same dispatch, Sherman instructed Garrard to, “…arrest all people, male and female, connected with those factories, no matter what the clamor, and let them foot it, under guard, to Marietta, whence I will send them by cars to the North. The poor women will make a howl.” [2] Garrard managed to provide wagons to carry the 400 or so men, women, and children arrested for treason into Marietta.

Before turning his sights toward the New Manchester Mill, Sherman wired Major General Henry Halleck in Washington explaining how the entire region “…was devoted to manufactories,” and he vowed to “…destroy every one of them.”[3]  Sherman’s observation proved astute, as the mills in Roswell produced sheeting, tent cloth, and wool for Confederate uniforms; many soldiers went into battle wearing ‘Roswell Grey’. Sherman made good on his promise when Federal cavalry approached their next target along Sweetwater Creek. This mill also provided cloth to support the Confederacy, so on July 9, three days after the destruction in Roswell, the Federal torch ignited again, when Major Haviland Thompkins ordered the burning of the New Manchester Mill.

Thompkins placed each of the mill workers under arrest, but did not charge them with treason; only the mill employees in Roswell faced this fate. The officer gave each worker 15 minutes to gather their belongings, before ordering some 200 men, women, and children to begin their journey to Marietta. Unlike the 400 or more refugees from Roswell who rode in wagons, the workers from Sweetwater made the trip on foot. Regardless of their mode of transportation, all eventually found their way to the grounds of the Georgia Military Institute in Marietta, where they awaited northbound trains (some lingered for over three weeks), which would take them through Chattanooga, on to Nashville, and then their final destination – Louisville, Kentucky. A Federal soldier charged with guarding the refugees in waiting observed, especially of the women, “Some of them are tough and it’s a hard job to keep them straight and to keep the men away from them. General Sherman says he would rather try to guard the whole Confederate Army, and I guess he is right about that.”[4]

Reaching the rail terminus in Louisville, the men quartered in the city’s military prison, while the women and children received housing in a newly opened hospital, where members of the Louisville Refugee Commission provided care. The citizens of Louisville, ill-equipped to handle the influx of the refugees, wanted the people sent elsewhere. Sherman intervened and issued orders to “…have them sent across the Ohio River and turned loose to earn a living where they won’t do us any harm.”[5] Over time, the mill workers ferried to the opposite bank of the river, and many took residence in various Indiana locales. Several of the Sweetwater families settled down in Perry County, where some eventually found employment in the Cannelton Cotton Mill after the war. Years later, roughly half of the New Manchester refugees made their way back to Georgia, but returned to a town forever lost to history.[6]

Today, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources manages the Sweetwater Creek State Park in Douglas County. Pay this scenic area a visit, walk the grounds where the mill workers lived and worked, and recall their 1864 struggles!

[1] Mary Deborah Petite, The Women Will Howl: The Union Army Capture of Roswell and New Manchester, Georgia, and the Forced Relocation of Mill Workers (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2008), passim. A great source for those wanting to learn more about the arrest of the workers in both Roswell and Sweetwater.

[2] U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, reprint 1899 ed. Series I 38, pt. 5 (Harrisburg, PA: National Historical Society, 1971), 76.

[3] Ibid., 73.

[4] Theodore F. Upson, With Sherman to the Sea; The Civil War Letters, Diaries & Reminiscences of Theodore F. Upson, ed. Oscar O. Winther (1958; repr., Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977), 119.

[5] U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 92.

[6] Petite, The Women Will Howl: The Union Army Capture of Roswell and New Manchester, Georgia, and the Forced Relocation of Mill Workers, passim.

shafferMichael K. Shaffer is a Civil War historian, author, newspaper columnist, and lecturer. He can be contacted at: www.civilwarhistorian.net.

Civil War Wednesday: Major General W.H.T. Walker

Major General W.H.T. Walker

Major General W.H.T. Walker

Hoping to place segments of his army in the rear of the Federals holding the left flank outside Atlanta, on the evening of July 21, 1864, General John Bell Hood ordered Lieutenant General William Hardee to lead his corps on a forced march toward the northeastern quadrant of the city. Hood believed this maneuver would afford Hardee’s men the opportunity to get in the rear of Major General James B. McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee. Rugged terrain accompanied the early-morning heat and delayed Hardee’s advance. Major General Joe Wheeler’s cavalry force joined the mission, and the Southern troopers rode toward Decatur.

Major General William Henry Talbot Walker’s Division, part of Hardee’s Corps, participated in this operation. Walker, a native Georgian, born 1816 in Augusta, and a graduate of West Point, received several wounds while fighting gallantly in the Seminole Wars and in the Mexican-American War. When he became commandant at West Point, a post he held for two years, 1854-56, the cadets tagged him with the nickname “Shot Pouch,” because of the amount of lead his body had collected over the years. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Walker initially led a Georgia volunteer division before receiving a brigadier general’s commission in the Confederate Army. The stress and strain during the first year of the conflict weakened Walker’s bullet-scarred body, and for one year, he rested. In February 1863, he returned to active duty, commanding the post at Savannah. He received a promotion to major general in May 1863 and traveled west to join with General Joseph E. Johnston’s force near Jackson, Mississippi.

Atlanta monument marking area of Walker’s death on July 22, 1864

Atlanta monument marking area of Walker’s death on July 22, 1864

Leading from the front on July 22, 1864, Walker commanded a body of troops consisting primarily of Georgia regiments, supplemented with a few units from South Carolina and Mississippi. The Battle of Atlanta/Bald Hill, a Federal victory, claimed the lives of two major generals; the North lost McPherson, and the South lost Walker, both men falling within a short time of each other. Hood recalled of Walker, “I am certain that those officers and men who came within the sphere of his genial presence will unite in the verdict that no truer or braver man ever fell upon the field of battle.”[1] The Charleston Mercury reported, “Gen. Walker, the brave old hero of Georgia, was killed in front of his division. There were none braver than him, and his patriotism was of the purest and highest order.” Augusta College’s Walker Cemetery serves as the final resting place for this warrior.



[1] John Bell Hood, Advance and Retreat: Personal Experiences in the United States and Confederate States Armies, (United States: Da Capo Press, 1993), 182.

shafferMichael K. Shaffer is the Assistant Director and Lecturer for Kennesaw State University’s Civil War Center , a Civil War historian, newspaper columnist, and author of ‘Washington County, Virginia in the Civil War.’ He is a member of the Society of Civil War Historians, Historians of the Civil War Western Theater, Georgia Association of Historians, and the Civil War Round Table of Atlanta. Michael also serves on the boards of the Civil War Round Table of Cobb County and the River Line Historic Area, and as a Civil War consultant for the Friends of Camp McDonald.

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Civil War Wednesday: Alfred R. Waud

Alexander Gardner photograph of Alfred Waud, Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-19623

Alexander Gardner photograph of Alfred Waud, Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-19623

Sketching the American Civil War brought fame to Great Britain native Alfred Rudolph Waud (pronounced Wode). In 1850, this foreign-trained artist arrived in America seeking a job as a scene painter for the burgeoning theater houses of the period. While awaiting an opportunity in this field, Waud worked as a sketch artist for several New England newspapers. In 1861, the coming of war brought unprecedented opportunities for skilled artisans such as Waud, his brother William, and the “war-artist” who accompanied Major General William T. Sherman during the Atlanta Campaign – Theodore R. Davis. Prior to the Battle of First Bull Run/Manassas, Waud received an assignment from employer New York Illustrated News to “…accompany the army through the campaign.”[1] For the balance of the war, Waud followed the Federal Army of the Potomac, witnessing all the major battles in the eastern theater. He left the Illustrated News for Harper’s Weekly near the end of 1861; at war’s end, Waud amassed 129 scenes for the News, and another 215 images for Harper’s.[2]

 

Highlighting the changes from the field to the final version, (at left) Waud’s initial sketch of Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House, Library of Congress LC-DIG-ppmsca-21320, and (at right) the printed sketch, as appearing in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol.4.

Waud’s initial sketch of Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House, Library of Congress LC-DIG-ppmsca-21320

During the Civil War, photographers struggled with an art form still in a static state. Mathew Brady, Alexander Gardner, George Barnard, and other shutterbugs took to the battlefields across the country, but with an inability to capture objects in motion. Portraying the thrill of action during battle fell to the skillful hands of Waud and other sketch artists. Dramatic changes often occurred from what the eyewitness observer outlined on the field of battle, compared to the printed images, which appeared in newspapers across the land. After sketching a scene, Waud and others would send their work, either overland or via ship, whichever method provided the quickest delivery to the point of destination – their respective publishers. Once at the printer, typically, several engravers would each receive a segment of the sketch to carve into a wooden block. The finished blocks, assembled and mounted together, formed a foundation for a metallic plate used on the printing press. The image of General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox shown above illustrates how these images could evolve from the field to press.[3]

Escaping danger on more than one occasion, as he came under Confederate fire, Waud survived the war and led a very busy life during the post-war and Reconstruction periods. He traveled to several states in the west, where he sketched frontier village scenes; he even made his way to Chicago to cover the Great Fire of 1871. Waud’s various employers during the latter stages of the nineteenth century certainly got a bang for their buck!

4

Waud’s postwar sketch of Lost Mountain, Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-17625

Hoping to capitalize on the various battles fought within Georgia, and boost travel on the Western & Atlantic Railroad (W&A), Joseph M. Brown, son of wartime Governor Joseph E. Brown, who served as traffic manager for the W&A, hired Waud in 1887. His mission for the artist – visit all the major battle sites in Georgia and sketch the terrain. Waud set about his journey, and along the way he interviewed many veterans to gain first-hand knowledge of how the fighting played out at sites of the Atlanta Campaign. His wonderful illustrations appeared in what today one would call a travel guide. In 1890, Brown titled the work The Mountain Campaigns in Georgia; Or, War Scenes on the W. & A. Pleased with the success of this venture, Brown asked Waud to remain in the south, travel to other battlefields outside the state, and sketch various scenes for a multi-volume work Brown planned to publish. Waud consented. During one of these sketching trips, he fell ill; after making his way back to Marietta, Waud received medical care in Brown’s home until April 6, 1891, when a husband, and father of four breathed his last at age 62. Despite initial desires among family members to have his body returned to his home in South Orange New Jersey, for burial, he received internment in Marietta’s St. James Episcopal Cemetery.

Waud’s gravesite in Marietta, Georgia, at the St. James Episcopal Cemetery, photo courtesy of author.

Waud’s gravesite in Marietta, Georgia, at the St. James Episcopal Cemetery, photo courtesy of author.

The Civil War’s most noted sketch artist left a legacy in the form of almost 2,300 images, housed today at the Library of Congress, which has digitized many of them for online viewing.[4] Follow this link to the Library of Congress, and enjoy the work of a very gifted artist!



[1] Frederic E. Ray, Alfred R. Waud, Civil War Artist (New York: Viking Press, 1974), 14.

[2] Ibid., 52.

[3] Ibid., 28.

[4] Terry L. Jones, Historical Dictionary of the Civil War (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2002), 2:1535.

shafferMichael K. Shaffer is the Assistant Director and Lecturer for Kennesaw State University’s Civil War Center , a Civil War historian, newspaper columnist, and author of ‘Washington County, Virginia in the Civil War.’ He is a member of the Society of Civil War Historians, Historians of the Civil War Western Theater, Georgia Association of Historians, and the Civil War Round Table of Atlanta. Michael also serves on the boards of the Civil War Round Table of Cobb County and the River Line Historic Area, and as a Civil War consultant for the Friends of Camp McDonald.

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Civil War Wednesday: Alexander Stephens

A younger Stephens.

A younger Stephens.

Alexander H. Stephens, a Georgia native, graduate of Franklin College (later UGA), and a former member of the Georgia legislature and the U.S. Senate, served as vice-president for the Confederate States of America. Stephens, along with the other delegates from the Empire State, joined representatives from South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana as they met in Montgomery, Alabama, in February 1861 to consider the next steps toward achieving some form of independence among the recently seceded states. Texas had also left the Union, but due to the great travel distance required, their delegates did not arrive in Montgomery until activities had set in-motion the establishment of the Confederate States of America.

During the deliberations, and subsequent drafting of the Confederate Constitution, “Little Aleck” took a very active role. When the time arrived for naming the provisional president and his cabinet, Stephens received the position of vice-president. Early in the war, Stephens spent time in the Confederate capital, which relocated to Richmond, Virginia, after the Old Dominion seceded. Stephens and President Jefferson Davis initially enjoyed a relatively positive working relationship. Soon, however, Davis relegated Stephens to a figure head with minimal responsibilities; yet another cabinet member Davis did not take full advantage of in navigating through the struggles of maintaining a fledgling nation at war. Stephens made frequent trips back to his beloved Georgia, and as 1863 unfolded, he spent the majority of his time at his home, Liberty Hall, in Crawfordville. Despite many naysayers of the period who criticized Stephens for failing to offer more active support of the Davis administration, the Georgian primarily took issue with two decisions emanating from Richmond. Stephens did not agree with conscription (the draft), and Davis’s ability to institute marital law.

Monument in front of Liberty Hall, Stephens’s home in Crawfordville, Georgia.

Monument in front of Liberty Hall, Stephens’s home in Crawfordville, Georgia.

Of conscription, Stephens suggested the act proved “…radically wrong in my judgment, both in principle and policy. Under this general system it will with us be a simple question of how much political quackery we have strength of constitution to bear and yet survive.” [1] As for suspending the writ of habeas corpus and imposing martial law, Stephens turned, as he always did, to Constitutional law. His brilliant legal mind interpreted the matter as the “… [Confederate] Constitution was made for war as well as peace…laws for the civil authorities and laws for the military…the constitutional guarantees are above and beyond the reach or power of Congress, and much more…beyond the power of any officer of the government.” [2] For his position on each of these issues, but especially his speaking out against martial law, Stephens received much criticism in newspapers throughout the Southland. “Little Aleck” remained in Crawfordville, until early 1865, when hopes for a potential end of hostilities drew him back to Richmond.

Davis appointed Stephens, and fellow Georgian John A. Campbell, along with Virginian R.M.T. Hunter to meet with President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State William Seward. After four hours of discussion onboard the River Queen, with Lincoln holding steadfast to his demand for the seceded states to peacefully resume their place within the Union, the failed Hampton Roads Peace Conference ended. The fighting would continue

Notebook and reading glasses on Stephens’s desk.

Notebook and reading glasses on Stephens’s desk.

without Stephens, who returned to Crawfordville. On May 11, 1865, Federal officers took him into custody, and he spent five months incarcerated in Boston’s Fort Warren prison. After receiving parole, Stephens once again returned to Crawfordville, where he spent the next few years penning his two-volume discourse A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States, which appeared in print, volume one in 1868, and the second in 1870. He served several terms as a U.S. Representative from Georgia before his election as governor in the fall of 1882; he would hold this position but four months.

Stephens died on March 4, 1883, and after an initial interment in Atlanta’s Oakland Cemetery, he came home to Crawfordville one final time where he rests today, amid the scenic grounds of the Alexander H. Stephens Historic Park. Tourists can visit his home, as the Georgia Department of Natural Resources currently manages the site.


[1] Stephens to Unknown Recipient, August 29, 1863, in Alexander H. Stephens, in Public and Private. With Letters and Speeches, Before, During, and Since the War, ed. Henry Cleveland (1866; repr., n.p.: IGCtesting, 2013), 173.

[2] Stephens to Honorable James Calhoun, Mayor of Atlanta, September 8, 1862, Ibid., 747-48.

All photographs taken at the A. H. Stephens State Historic Park in Crawfordville, Georgia, courtesy of the author.

shafferMichael K. Shaffer is the Assistant Director and Lecturer for Kennesaw State University’s Civil War Center , a Civil War historian, newspaper columnist, and author of ‘Washington County, Virginia in the Civil War.’ He is a member of the Society of Civil War Historians, Historians of the Civil War Western Theater, Georgia Association of Historians, and the Civil War Round Table of Atlanta. Michael also serves on the boards of the Civil War Round Table of Cobb County and the River Line Historic Area, and Center Combined Logo-page-001as a Civil War consultant for the Friends of Camp McDonald.

Civil War Wednesday: Ringgold Gap

Alfred Waud sketch of Ringgold Gap, Courtesy Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-14334

Alfred Waud sketch of Ringgold Gap, Courtesy Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-14334

The Battle of Chattanooga played out on November 25, 1863 as Federal troops continued to scale the heights of Missionary Ridge, forcing the Confederates holding the high ground to break – a rout ensued! However, one Confederate officer and his men continued to hold firm – Major General Patrick Cleburne. General Joe Johnston, who worried over his ability to withdraw the Army of Tennessee away from the untenable position, and maneuver into northwest Georgia, would once again depend upon Cleburne, or as many people had started calling this officer – the “Stonewall of the West.” Cleburne did not disappoint; he seldom did when rallying his brave Arkansans, Alabamians, Tennesseans, and Texans!

Major General Patrick Cleburne, Courtesy Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-107446

Major General Patrick Cleburne, Courtesy Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-107446

One often reads in the annals of military history of units engaging in a rearguard action. Ringgold Gap, or as most soldiers referred to the high ground flanking the Western and Atlantic Rail Road and Chickamauga Creek passage – Taylor’s Ridge – exemplified the best of protecting an army on the fly, ensuring their ability to gain safe haven in order to refit and regroup. Cleburne’s quick reconnaissance of the terrain, and expert deployment of his brigades, enabled the outnumbered (one gray division against three in blue) Confederate troops to hold-off the advancing force of Major General Joe Hooker. Hooker acted quickly, perhaps too hurriedly, as he threw each arriving brigade into the attack in piecemeal fashion instead of waiting for a massing of his force, and his artillery. He believed he faced a Confederate army on the run, opening a path for him to move in for the knockout. Hooker’s hunch proved as false as his punch!

Each Federal advance met with a repulse, as Cleburne’s Brigadier Generals Polk, Lowrey, Granbury, and Govan masterfully maneuvered their troops into position to thwart the approaching Federals. When ammunition ran low, the Southerners threw rocks down upon the men attempting to scale the ridge. Hooker’s guns finally arrived around noon, and the resultant shelling made life along the ridge a little hotter for Cleburne. Soon, he began withdrawing his brigades; a move made in confidence after he received a dispatch notifying him of the Army of Tennessee’s safe departure from the area. Cleburne’s actions did not escape notice, as the Confederate Congress issued a Joint Resolution of thanks “…for distinguished service at Ringgold Gap.”[1] Southern newspapers also praised the rising star of the west; The Confederate Union recounted the affair in their December 8, 1863 edition, proudly proclaiming, “The whole command behaved well, and especially that model solder, Maj. Gen. Cleburne, a true son of Emerald Isle, and his heroic division.”

Federal artillery at Ringgold Gap, Courtesy National Archives

Federal artillery at Ringgold Gap, Courtesy National Archives

Private Sam Watkins with the 1st Tennessee Infantry described what he witnessed on the slopes of Taylor’s Ridge. “The scene looked unlike any battlefield I ever saw. From the foot to the top of the hill was covered with their slain, all lying on their faces. It had the appearance of the roof of a house shingled with dead Yankees.”[2] Many in the North criticized Hooker for failing to await the arrival of his artillery. A December 11, 1863 account from an Ohio newspaper, The Jeffersonian Democrat, typified the response to Hooker’s actions. “It was important to dislodge them, but madness to attempt to do it without the assistance of artillery to cover the assault.”

The fighting along Taylor’s Ridge lasted four hours, with each side suffering over 400 casualties, yet Cleburne performed his assigned task, and afforded Johnston the opportunity to move his army into winter quarters in Dalton.



[1] U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, vol. 31, pt. 2 (1890; repr., Harrisburg, PA: National Historical Society, 1985), 758.

[2] Sam Watkins, COMPANY AYTCH or a SIDE SHOW of the BIG SHOW: A CLASSIC MEMOIR of the CIVIL WAR, ed. M. Thomas Inge (New York City: Plume, 1999), 99.

Andersonville Trip 2013 068Michael K. Shaffer is the Assistant Director and Lecturer for Kennesaw State University’s Civil War Center , a Civil War historian, newspaper columnist, and author of ‘Washington County, Virginia in the Civil War.’ He is a member of the Society of Civil War Historians, Historians of the Civil War Western Theater, Georgia Association of Historians, and the Civil War Round Table of Atlanta. Michael also serves on the boards of the Civil War Round Table of Cobb County and the River Line Historic Area, and as a Civil War consultant for the Friends of Camp McDonald.

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