Continuing to press on all military fronts, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant sanctioned a two-part operation in Alabama. Major General Edward Canby’s force targeted Mobile, while Major General James H. Wilson would lead what resulted in the largest cavalry raid during the war. Mounting 13,500 troopers, Wilson set out on March 22, 1865, for his primary target – Selma. Home to an arsenal and armory, and various warehouses storing matériel, Selma provided an irresistible target for the Northern troops bent on destroying the South’s resources for continuing the war.
Attempting to thwart Wilson’s advancing horsemen, Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, with 5,000 cavalry troops, prepared to meet the superior numbers riding toward their position from three different directions. On March 31, Wilson’s troopers bested Forrest at Montevallo, and the victors destroyed the ironworks there before riding in the direction of Selma. Engaging Forrest and company near Selma on April 2, the Federals fought through Southern artillery to take the city. Forrest managed to escape, but Wilson’s riders captured 2,700 of his men. The Federals continued their trek across Alabama, destroying anything of military value in their path. After several days in the saddle, the bluecoats arrived outside Girard (present-day Phenix City, Alabama), where the Confederates had constructed a series of earthworks protecting the bridge crossings into Columbus, Georgia.
Launching one of the war’s rare nighttime attacks, Wilson’s troopers struck during the cover of darkness. Desperate fighting followed; eventually, the Confederates fell back across the Chattahoochee River into Columbus, and the Federals took possession of the Franklin Street Bridge. Major General Howell Cobb, in command of the defense of Columbus, traveled to Macon to rally forces for protecting the city. Wilson’s troopers burned thousands of cotton bales in Columbus, and destroyed the iron works and naval yard. Confederates set fire to the CSS Jackson, which still readied for combat during Wilson’s attack, and scuttled the CSS Chattahoochee.
Arriving outside Macon on April 20 – where news of General Robert E. Lee’s surrender had just come in – the Federals repulsed Southern troops holding an outer defense line. Soon, Cobb sent word to Wilson asking for a truce pending word from General Joseph E. Johnston and Major General William T. Sherman’s actions in North Carolina. Refusing to accept Cobb’s request, Wilson ordered his men to continue into Macon, where the officials surrendered the city. As the Macon Telegraph and Messenger later reported during the tenth anniversary of the event, “General Cobb and other officers here now regarded the war as closed.” Indeed, Wilson’s Raid marked the last significant military action of the war on Georgia soil.
 National Park Service, Battle of Selma, http://www.nps.gov/abpp/battles/al007.htm (accessed March 30, 2015).
 Charles A. Misulia, Columbus, Georgia, 1865: The Last True Battle of the Civil War (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2010), 156.
 Ibid., 215.
Michael K. Shaffer is a Civil War historian, author, newspaper columnist, and lecturer. He can be contacted at: www.civilwarhistorian.net.